The United Nations was founded after World War II in 1945, based on the principles enshrined in the UN Charter, to maintain international peace and security, promote human welfare and human rights.
Today the organisation comprises 193 member states that participate in addressing and finding solutions to global problems within a unique international framework of dialogue and cooperation. The main bodies of the UN are: General Assembly, Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), Security Council and International Court of Justice.
The UN’s mandate covers a wide range of areas such as: conducting peacekeeping operations, preventing conflict and providing humanitarian assistance, operational activities for development, etc. The organisation also provides a global platform for addressing and deciding on challenges facing the international community such as sustainable development, climate change, counter-terrorism, disarmament, population welfare, promoting democracy and human rights, etc.
Activity in the Republic of Moldova:
The Republic of Moldova became a member of the United Nations on 2 March 1992 with the adoption by the UN General Assembly of Resolution A/RES/46/223.
As a universal forum for debate on global issues, the Republic of Moldova attaches particular importance to the role of the UN in promoting democracy and human rights, maintaining international peace and security, economic and social development, respect for the principles of international law and the rule of law.
At present, more than 20 specialised agencies, funds and programmes have offices or project offices in Chisinau. The Ministry of Internal Affairs collaborates with:
– United Nations Development Programme (UNDP);
– UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF);
– United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN WOMEN);
– International Organization for Migration (IOM);
– UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC);
– UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE);
– World Bank (WB);
– Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR);
As the United Nations lead agency for international development, UNDP has a presence in 170 countries and territories where it works to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality.
It helps countries develop policies, build leadership and partnership management skills, strengthen institutional capacities and become more resilient to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
In the Republic of Moldova, UNDP is guided by the Country Programme and the UN-Republic of Moldova Partnership Framework for Sustainable Development 2018-2022, which support the Government’s priorities. The work focuses on three priority areas: effective governance; inclusive growth; climate change, environment and energy.
Since 1995 UNICEF has been working to ensure the realisation of the rights of children and women in Moldova. Partnerships with the Government, Parliament, civil society, media, business and others have led to progress in the realisation of children’s rights in a number of areas and increased commitment by duty bearers to fulfil their obligations under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). In its work, UNICEF addresses the problems faced by all children in the country with the aim of improving their health, education, development and protection.
During the implementation of the current Country Programme, UNICEF aims to build on past progress with partners to ensure that all children have access to basic services, grow up in a loving and caring family, get a quality education and develop to their full potential.
UNICEF supports both authorities and civil society to ensure the social inclusion of children and families at risk of exclusion due to geographical disparities, poverty, ethnicity, disability, gender and lack of parental care.
c) UN WOMEN
UN Women is the United Nations (UN) agency dedicated to promoting gender equality and empowering women. A world leader in advocacy for women, UN Women was established to strengthen the advancement of women’s interests worldwide.
UN Women supports the efforts of UN member states in creating global standards for gender equality, and works with governments and civil society to help them develop laws, policies, programmes and services that will enable effective implementation of these standards, making them truly useful for women and girls around the world. At the global level, UN Women is working to make the vision set out in the Sustainable Development Goals a reality for women and girls, and advocates for women’s equal participation in all aspects of life, focusing on five priority areas:
– Enhancing women’s leadership and participation;
– eliminating violence against women;
– involving women in all aspects of peace and security;
– increasing women’s economic empowerment;
– promoting gender equality as a central element in national planning and budgeting.
UN Women coordinates and supports the work of the UN system in promoting gender equality, as well as all negotiations and agreements related to the 2030 Agenda. UN Women advances the positioning of gender equality as an essential condition for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals and for a more inclusive society.
Established in 1951, the IOM is the leading intergovernmental organisation in the field of migration and works closely with governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental partners.
With 174 member states, 8 other observer states and offices in over 100 countries, IOM is dedicated to promoting orderly and humane migration for the benefit of all. The IOM Mission in Moldova was opened in 2001, but Moldova only officially became an IOM Member State in 2003.
Together with its partners in the international community, IOM Moldova works mainly in the following four areas:
– Migration and Development
– Prevention and protection (combating trafficking in human beings)
– Migration management
– Facilitated migration
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime was established in its current form in October 2002 with responsibility for implementing UN programmes in the field of drug control and crime prevention in an integrated manner.
The Agency focuses on illicit drug trafficking and abuse, crime prevention and criminal justice, international terrorism and political corruption. It is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
UNODC’s mission is to contribute to global peace and security, human rights and development by making the world safer from drugs, crime, corruption and terrorism.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe was founded in 1947 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. It is one of five regional commissions under the administrative direction of the United Nations headquarters.
The main objective of the UNECE is to promote pan-European economic integration. The UNECE includes 56 member states from Europe, North America and Asia. However, all interested United Nations Member States can contribute to the work of the UNECE. More than 70 international professional organisations and other non-governmental organisations take part in UNECE activities.
As a multilateral platform, the UNECE facilitates greater economic integration and cooperation among member states, and promotes sustainable development and economic prosperity through:
– policy dialogue;
– negotiating international legal instruments;
– developing regulations and standards;
– exchange and application of best practices, and economic and technical expertise;
– technical cooperation for countries with economies in transition.
The UNECE contributes to enhancing the effectiveness of the United Nations through the regional implementation of the outcomes of United Nations conferences and global meetings. It focuses on the UN’s global economic mandates, in cooperation with other global actors and key stakeholders, in particular the business community.
g) World Bank
The World Bank is an internationally supported bank that provides assistance and technical support to poor countries. The World Bank Group is an institution made up of five other international financial banks, namely:
– International Bank for Reconstruction and Development – IBRD;
– International Finance Corporation (IFC);
– International Development Association (IDA);
– Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA);
– International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
Each institution has a distinct role to play in fighting poverty and improving living conditions for people in developing countries. The generic term World Bank refers mainly to the IBRD and IDA, and the main financing projects are carried out through the IBRD.
The Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (UN Human Rights) is the main UN human rights entity. We represent the world’s commitment to the promotion and protection of the full range of human rights and freedoms set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
UNHCR in Moldova assists the authorities, the judiciary, parliament, national human rights institutions and civil society through technical advice and capacity-building activities to protect, respect, fulfil and mainstream human rights in the country.
Both OHCHR and the Office have a unique role:
– The promotion and protection of human rights;
– Contributing to the accountability of people;
– Preventing abuse and helping to alleviate situations that could lead to conflict. Monitoring and analysis of the organisation feeds into sensitive decision-making and development programmes;
– Capacity building and legal advice to thousands of people, supporting the development and judicious adoption of laws and policies worldwide.
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
Moldova’s first contacts with the North Atlantic Alliance were established after the country declared independence. On 20 December 1991, the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) meeting took place in Brussels, created following the decision of the NATO Rome Summit of 7-8 November 1991.
On January 6, 1994, at the North Atlantic Alliance Summit, where the American initiative “Partnership for Peace” was discussed, the Republic of Moldova expressed its interest in joining this Programme.
On March 16, 1994, at NATO Headquarters in Brussels, the first meeting of the President of the Republic of Moldova with the NATO Secretary General took place, followed by the signing of the Framework Document of the Partnership for Peace Programme.
In order to coordinate NATO activities as efficiently as possible, the Mission of the Republic of Moldova to NATO was established on December 16, 1997. The Head of the Mission is the Ambassador of the Republic of Moldova to the Kingdom of Belgium. In 1997, the Republic of Moldova also extended its cooperation with NATO in the scientific field.
In 2006, the North Atlantic Council (NAC) and the Government of the Republic of Moldova approved the Moldova-NATO Individual Partnership Action Plan (IPAP). The IPAP was updated in 2010, 2014, 2017 and 2022. Regularly, at NATO HQ, the meeting in the format of NATO member states + Republic of Moldova takes place, where the implementation of the IPAP and priorities for the future are discussed.
Since 2014, the Republic of Moldova has been contributing to the NATO-led peacekeeping operation KFOR in Kosovo, which is conducted in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 1244.
The Republic of Moldova has been accepted into 2 initiatives launched by the Alliance at the NATO Summit in Wales in 2014: the Defence Capabilities Building Initiative (DCBI) and the Interoperability Platform.
On November 29, 2016 at the Alliance Headquarters in Brussels, the Prime Minister of the Republic of Moldova Pavel Filip together with NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg signed the Agreement on the establishment of the NATO Liaison Office in the Republic of Moldova.
On 8 December 2017 NATO Deputy Secretary General Rose Gottemoeller inaugurated the NATO Liaison Office in Chisinau.
The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), made up of 57 countries, focuses on conflict prevention, crisis management and post-conflict reconstruction.
OSCE in the Republic of Moldova
The Mission facilitates a comprehensive and sustainable political settlement of the Transnistrian conflict based on the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the Republic of Moldova with a special status for Transnistria within Moldova.
To this end, the Mission engages in diplomacy – predominantly quiet diplomacy – to facilitate negotiations and dialogue between Chisinau and Tiraspol. In close cooperation with OSCE institutions, the Mission also carries out a range of other activities, including the promotion of human and minority rights, the culture of tolerance, and support for democratic transformation, including through strengthening the rule of law principles, which are important corollary issues in the settlement process.
The OSCE facilitates a three-level negotiation process for a comprehensive and lasting political settlement of the Transnistrian conflict.
The Head of Mission, as an OSCE mediator, uses his role as a diplomatic intermediary to mediate between Chisinau and Tiraspol: he facilitates negotiations between the two political representatives and in the 13 thematic working groups. At the international level, the OSCE Chairmanships, in consultation with the mediators, call meetings in the “5+2” format to mark progress made by the parties on the ground and to set new targets and deadlines for advancing the settlement process (Berlin, Vienna, Rome Protocols). The “5+2” format includes the Republic of Moldova and Transnistria as parties, the OSCE, the Russian Federation and Ukraine as mediators, and the European Union and the United States as observers.
Since the “5+2” meeting in Berlin in 2016, the parties have agreed to work on eight confidence-building measures, which constitute the “Berlin-plus” package. So far, the parties have made major achievements in the six agreements, which have improved the daily lives of students, teachers, farmers, entrepreneurs on both sides of the Dniester River. Substantial progress was achieved in the implementation of the telecommunications agreement.
It is for the parties to define the special status of Transnistria within the Republic of Moldova. The Berlin-plus package agreements marked the beginning of this process.
Since 1994, the Mission has participated as an observer in the Unified Control Commission ( UCC). In accordance with the 2004 Agreement on the principles of cooperation between the Mission and the UCC, the Mission collects and provides information on the situation in the Security Zone. To this end, the Mission regularly shares its findings with all UCC delegations and the 57 OSCE participating States.
Council of Europe
The Republic of Moldova became a member of the Council of Europe (CoE) on 13 July 1995. The Council of Europe is an international, intergovernmental and regional organisation. It was founded on 5 May 1949 and brings together all the democratic states of the European Union as well as other states from central and eastern Europe. It is independent of the European Union, and is also distinct from the European Council or the Council of the European Union.
The Council of Europe is made up of 46 member states plus a number of observer states.
The main objectives of the Council of Europe are:
– Protection of human rights, pluralist democracy and the rule of law;
– To raise awareness and advance the development of Europe’s cultural identity and diversity;
– Identifying solutions to problems facing European society: discrimination against minorities, xenophobia, intolerance, bioethics and human cloning, terrorism, trafficking in human beings, organised crime and corruption, cybercrime, violence against children, etc..;
– Strengthening democratic stability in Europe by supporting political, legislative and constitutional reforms.
It is an international police cooperation organisation. Created in 1923, the organisation has 195 member states.
Its work focuses mainly on public safety and the fight against transnational crimes against humanity, child pornography, cybercrime, drug trafficking, environmental crime, genocide, trafficking in human beings, illicit drug production, copyright infringement, missing persons, illicit trafficking in works of art, intellectual property rights violations, money laundering, organised crime, corruption, terrorism, war crimes, arms smuggling and white-collar crime.
Interpol connects all member countries through a communications system called I-24/7. Countries use this secure network to contact each other and the General Secretariat. It also allows them to access Interpol’s databases and services in real time from both central and remote locations.
Cooperation with the Republic of Moldova
The INTERPOL National Central Bureau (NCB) in Chisinau is part of the International Police Co-operation Centre of the Inspectorate General of Police (IGP).
By providing information from global sources on regional crime trends, the NCB helps police officers throughout the country to detect and investigate the flow of illicit goods along trafficking routes in and around the country.
As part of efforts to strengthen national security, the NBC Chisinau is taking steps to provide police officers throughout the country, particularly at border checkpoints, with access to INTERPOL databases so they can determine whether individuals pose a potential threat to national security.
Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, was set up in 2004 to support EU Member States and Schengen associated countries in protecting the external borders of the EU’s free movement area. As an agency of the European Union, Frontex is funded by the EU budget as well as by contributions from Schengen associated countries. By 2020, the agency will have around 1 000 staff, almost a quarter of whom will be seconded from Member States and will return to their jobs in their countries after their mandate with Frontex ends.
In 2016, the agency expanded and evolved to become the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, and its role broadened from migration control to border management, giving it increasing responsibilities in the fight against cross-border crime.
– The Agency deploys specialised law enforcement staff from EU Member States and Schengen associated countries, together with vessels, aircraft and border surveillance equipment, to external border areas in need of additional assistance.
– Frontex assesses border security risks at EU level.
– Frontex constantly monitors the external borders of the European Union, providing up-to-date information and alerts to EU Member States and Schengen associated countries, the European Commission and other agencies.
– The Agency carries out annual assessments of the capacity and readiness of each Member State and Schengen associated countries to face challenges at the external borders, including migratory pressure.
– The Agency supports cooperation between law enforcement authorities, EU agencies and customs services at the maritime border.
– The Agency uses the information collected at the borders jointly with the relevant national authorities, Europol and other European agencies.
– Frontex plays an increasingly important role in the return to countries of origin of people who do not have the right to stay in the European Union. The agency helps Member States coordinate and fund return operations, but can also launch such operations on its own initiative.
– Cooperation with non-EU countries and the Schengen area is an integral part of Frontex’s mandate and one of the Agency’s strategic priorities.
– Frontex is able to rapidly deploy specialised border and Coast Guard staff and specific technical equipment to EU Member States and Schengen associated countries facing an emergency situation at their external borders.
– Frontex brings together border control experts with research and industry experts to ensure that new technologies meet the needs of border control authorities.
– Frontex develops common training standards for border authorities.
Cooperation with the Republic of Moldova
The Border Police and the Frontex Agency cooperate on the basis of a Working Arrangement signed in August 2008. With the signing of this document, formal cooperation between the two institutions was launched and gradually developed.
In March 2009, the Cooperation Plan between the Border Guard Service (now the Border Police) and the Frontex Agency was signed, which provides for a set of measures aimed at developing the institutional capacities of the Moldovan border authority.
Moldovan officers have been trained in various training activities in the field of risk analysis, detection of false or falsified travel documents, detection of stolen means of transport, training of staff according to EU requirements in this field, application of common standards in the training of service dogs, etc.
In December 2011, the Border Police and the Frontex Agency signed a Cooperation Plan for 2012-2014.
In this context, by Order No 141 of the Head of the Border Police Department, the Frontex National Contact Point (NFPOC) was created, which has the power to coordinate and implement the Cooperation Plan with the FRONTEX Agency.
During 2011-2013, several joint operations with the Agency were planned and carried out with the involvement of border guards, including within the Frontex Coordination Points established on the territory of the Republic of Moldova. It should be noted that among all non-EU countries that have cooperation agreements with Frontex Agency, Moldova is the only country that has established 2 Coordination Points.
Also, under the aegis of Frontex, a number of training measures and activities have been planned, mainly in the field of risk analysis, document expertise, organization of joint operations, staff qualification, etc., involving more than 60 Border Police employees.
The Border Police and the FRONTEX Agency are in permanent contact on the development dimension, in particular regarding surveillance equipment and automated systems that may be relevant for the integrated border management system. Moreover, Border Police officers are involved in the implementation activities of the border security system of the EUROSUR platform.
CEPOL is a European Union agency that promotes European and international law enforcement cooperation through training.
CEPOL aims to become an international centre and promoter of change in the field of law enforcement training. A centre that contributes to addressing European and global security issues by bringing the law enforcement community together to share best practice, experience and expertise.
– Professional excellence;
– full respect for fundamental rights.
CEPOL brings together specialists with law enforcement skills to:
– offer them opportunities for personal and professional development through training;
– contribute through training to the solution of problems related to European security;
– establish networks of training institutes and specialists.
CEPOL contributes to a more secure Europe by enhancing cooperation and exchange of knowledge between law enforcement staff from the Member States of the European Union and, to some extent, from third countries on issues arising from EU security priorities, in particular the EU policy cycle on serious and organised crime.
CEPOL in the Republic of Moldova
CEPOL contributes to the improvement of the law enforcement education system in Moldova. Following the request of the Republic of Moldova, CEPOL conducted its first in-depth strategic assessment in the country to provide strategic guidance on law enforcement education, training infrastructure and equipment as well as innovative learning solutions for the educational system within the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The specific aim of the evaluation is to support the Ministry of Interior of Moldova in developing a roadmap for a sustainable and improved education system and to further expand law enforcement capacity to fight organised crime.
The European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM) was launched in 2005. The mission promotes border control, customs rules and practices that meet EU standards and respond to the needs of both partner countries. The Mission is an advisory, technical body based in Odessa (Ukraine). The Memorandum of Understanding signed between the European Commission and the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of Ukraine at the end of 2005 is the legal basis for EUBAM. The Coordinating Board acts as the governing body of the Mission.
The Mission has an Office in Chisinau and six territorial offices – three on the Moldovan side of the common border and three on the Ukrainian side. EUBAM’s activities promote economic development and strengthen security in the region. The mission contributes to cross-border cooperation and confidence building, helping to improve efficiency, transparency and security along the Moldovan-Ukrainian border.
The Mission’s objectives are:
– to contribute to the peaceful settlement of the Transnistrian conflict through confidence-building measures and a monitoring presence on the Transnistrian segment of the Moldovan-Ukrainian border;
– to ensure full implementation of Integrated Border Management (IBM) practices;
– to support the Moldovan and Ukrainian authorities to fight cross-border crime more effectively.
The South East European Law Enforcement Centre (SELEC) is an international, treaty-based law enforcement organisation that brings together the resources and expertise of police and customs authorities pooling synergies to more effectively combat cross-border organised crime in South East Europe.
SELEC, as the successor to the SECI Centre founded in 1999, is established to provide support to the 11 member states (Republic of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Hungary, Republic of Moldova, Montenegro, Republic of Northern Macedonia, Romania, Republic of Serbia and Republic of Turkey) to enhance coordination in preventing and combating crime, including serious and organised transnational crime. The founding document of SELEC is the Convention of the South East European Law Enforcement Centre, which entered into force on 7 October 2011.
In a constant effort to support its member states, SELEC provides law enforcement authorities in the South East Europe region with multinational expertise, providing the necessary platform for the exchange of information and requests for assistance, supporting operational meetings, joint investigations and regional operations, as well as providing quality analytical products.
In addition to its 11 Member States, SELEC has more than 25 partner countries and organisations and has established numerous partnerships with other organisations, bodies and the private sector.
In addition, under the auspices of SELEC operates the South East European Prosecutors Advisory Group (SEEPAG), which brings together prosecutors working in the field of international judicial cooperation from all 11 member states to facilitate and accelerate cooperation in serious cross-border crime investigations and cases in the South East European region.
Member States and operational partners deploy customs and police liaison officers to the SELEC headquarters, who work together on a daily basis, facilitating the exchange of information and requests for assistance in real time. Each liaison officer is supported in their activities by a dedicated national focal point established in each Member State.
National Focal Points (NFPs) act as the single point of contact in the Member State for communication with SELEC, via the liaison officers in that Member State, ensuring a rapid flow of information by collecting and distributing enquiries and responses from and to law enforcement agencies and liaison officers posted at SELEC headquarters.
The International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) is an international organisation with 18 member states and over 250 staff. Active in over 90 countries around the world, it takes a regional approach in its work to create effective cooperation and partnerships along migration routes. Priority regions include Africa, Central and South Asia, Europe and the Middle East. Its three-pillar approach to migration management – structurally linking research, migration dialogues and capacity building – contributes to better global migration policy-making. The Vienna-based organisation has a mission in Brussels, a regional office in Malta and project offices in several countries. ICMPD receives funding from its member states, the European Commission, the UN and other multilateral institutions, as well as bilateral donors. Established in 1993, ICMPD has UN observer status and cooperates with over 700 partners, including EU institutions and UN agencies.
The Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organisation (BSEC) is a regional international organisation focusing on multilateral political and economic initiatives to promote cooperation, peace, stability and prosperity in the Black Sea region.
The organisation’s mission is to:
– Acting in a spirit of friendship and good neighbourliness, dialogue and cooperation among member states;
– the development and diversification of continuous bilateral and multilateral cooperation based on the principles and rules of international law;
– improving the business environment and promoting individual and collective initiative of enterprises and companies directly involved in the process of economic cooperation;
– economic cooperation in a manner which does not contravene the international obligations of the Member States, including those arising from their membership of international organisations or institutions of an integrationist or other nature and which does not impede the promotion of their relations with third parties;
– further encouraging participation in the BSEC economic cooperation process by other interested States, international economic and financial institutions, as well as enterprises and companies.
The OIF came into being on 20 March 1970, with the signing of the Treaty of Niamey, developing international policy actions and multilateral political, educational, economic and cultural cooperation between the 88 states and governments.
- Mission and objectives:
– To promote the French language, multilingualism and cultural diversity.
– Promotion of peace, democracy and human rights
– Supporting education, training, higher education and research
– Developing economic cooperation for sustainable development.
The OIF has four permanent representations in French-speaking countries to international organisations (in Addis Abeba to the African Union, in Brussels to the European Union and in New York and Geneva to the United Nations).
The work of the IOF is supported by non-governmental organisations through the Francophone Conference of International Non-Governmental Organisations (COING), which brings together 127 non-governmental organisations. The IOF’s work pays particular attention to youth, gender equality and the digital domain.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was created on 8 December 1991 with the signing of the Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States by the Presidents of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.
On 21 December 1991 the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Republic of Armenia, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Moldova, the Russian Federation, the Republic of Tajikistan, the Republic of Turkmenistan, the Republic of Uzbekistan and Ukraine signed the Alma-Ata Declaration on the establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
On 22 January 1993 the CIS Summit in Minsk adopted the Statute of the Commonwealth of Independent States.
The Republic of Moldova ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States by Decision of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova No 40 of 8 April 1994 and the Statute of the Commonwealth of Independent States was ratified by Decision of the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova No 76 of 26 April 1994.
Objectives of the Commonwealth of Independent States:
– Cooperation in the political, economic, environmental, humanitarian, cultural and other fields;
– Comprehensive and balanced economic and social development of the Member States within a common economic space, inter-State cooperation and integration;
– Ensuring human rights and fundamental freedoms in accordance with the generally recognised principles and norms of international law and OSCE documents;
– Cooperation among Member States in ensuring international peace and security, implementing effective measures to reduce armaments and military expenditure, eliminating nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction and achieving general and complete disarmament;
– Assistance to citizens of Member States in their freedom of communication, interaction and movement within the Community;
– Mutual legal assistance and cooperation on other legal matters;
– Peaceful settlement of disputes and conflicts between CIS Member States.
CIS statutory cooperation bodies:
– Council of Heads of State;
– Council of Heads of Government;
– Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs;
– Economic Council;
– Council of Defence Ministers;
– Council of the Chiefs of Defence;
– Interparliamentary Assembly;
– Economic Court.
Some 70 branch cooperation bodies operate within the CIS, coordinating the joint efforts of member states in the most important sectors of economic and social development, humanitarian cooperation, the fight against crime and terrorism and other areas.
The first meeting of the Ministers of Home Affairs of the Commonwealth of Independent States took place in April 1992. Subsequently, the decision was taken to transform it into the Council of Ministers of Home Affairs of the CIS Member States (CMAI) for the coordination of law enforcement cooperation in the fight against crime in the post-Soviet area.
On 24 September 1993, by a decision of the Council of Prime Ministers of CIS governments, the inter-state structure of the Office for the Coordination of the Fight against Organised Crime and Other Dangerous Crimes in the Territory of the Member States of the Commonwealth of Independent States (BCCCO) was established, headed by Director Oleg Konovalov, who was elected by a decision of the Council of Ministers of Internal Affairs of the CIS Member States.
The aim of this organisation is to continuously activate cooperation between CIS member states, improve the performance of joint and coordinated interdepartmental prophylactic activities, conduct operational investigative operations and special operations on detection, counteraction and detection of crimes committed on the territory of CIS member states. It should be noted that each state has a seconded officer at its headquarters in Or. Moscow, Russian Federation, each State has a representative from the Ministry of Interior to represent the interests of the institutions they represent and to improve cooperation within the CIS.
The aim of this organisation is to continuously activate cooperation between CIS member states, to improve the performance of joint and coordinated interdepartmental prophylactic activities, to carry out operational investigative operations and special operations on detection, counteraction and detection of crimes committed on the territory of CIS member states. It should be noted that each state has a seconded officer at its headquarters in Or. Moscow, Russian Federation, each State has a representative from the Ministry of Interior to represent the interests of the institutions they represent and to improve cooperation within the CIS.
The basic activities consist of:
– Ensuring cooperation in the fight against crime, law enforcement and other areas of activity of the Ministries of Interior.
– Implementation of the decisions of the Council of Heads of State and the Council of Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Independent States on matters within the competence of the Ministries of Interior.
– It examines matters relating to the fight against crime, the strengthening of the rule of law and the organisation of cooperation between the Ministries of the Interior of the Commonwealth of Independent States, and has the authority to take decisions in areas falling within its competence.
– It draws up proposals on matters falling within the competence of the Ministries of the Interior and submits them to the Council of Heads of State and the Council of Heads of Government of the Commonwealth of Independent States in accordance with the established procedure.
– It shall examine the implementation of the decisions of the Council of Heads of State and Government of the Commonwealth of Independent States which fall within the competence of the Council of Heads of State and Government, as well as the documents adopted at the meetings of the Council of Heads of State and Government.
– It facilitates the mutual exchange of experience and information between Ministries of Internal Affairs.
Europol is the European Union’s law enforcement cooperation agency, based in The Hague.
The agency supports the 27 Member States in their fight against serious crime and international terrorism. It also works with many partner countries and international organisations outside the EU.
The work of the liaison officer at Europol has been aimed at achieving the major objectives of ensuring police dialogue in a European format, in order to provide operational, methodological and practical support to the MIA’s subdivisions in investigating crime, especially that with a transnational organized nature and with an impact on Moldovan citizens or involving Moldovan citizens.
He is appointed by Order of the MAI, pursuant to the Law no. 288/2016 “On the civil servant with special status in the Ministry of Internal Affairs”, the Law no. 761/2001 “On the diplomatic service” and in accordance with the provisions of the Government Decision no. 959/2018 “On the approval of the Nomenclature of functions and hierarchical coefficients for the determination of function allowances for the staff of the diplomatic service institutions of the Republic of Moldova abroad, the calculation basis for the determination of function allowances, as well as their structures and staffing levels”.
The basic duties of the officer consist of:
– Ensuring strategic and operational cooperation in accordance with the Agreement on operational and strategic cooperation between the Republic of Moldova and the European Police Office.
– Representing the focal point for communication and exchange of information between the MFA and Europol through secure communication channels created for this purpose.
– Operational use of data on cross-border crime provided by law enforcement agencies of EU states and Europol.
– Facilitate fluent communication with the relevant authorities in the state of accreditation (the Netherlands) to solve problems of common interest, including those related to the fight against transnational crime.
– Forward proposals for the development of national home affairs programmes and identify potential areas where the diplomatic mission, organisation, international institution could provide assistance.
– Receiving, processing, analysing and ensuring the use of operational information received from law enforcement agencies in Moldova and other states.
– Participating in the efficient exchange of data and information between the MIA, its subdivisions, law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Moldova, where appropriate, and Europol, immediate and timely communication of information on the current situation, proposals, opportunities within the competence of the MIA.
The South East European Law Enforcement Centre (SELEC), an international law enforcement organisation of 11 member states, aims to provide support to member states and enhance coordination to prevent and combat cross-border crime and is the successor to the South East European Cooperation Initiative (SECI).
SELEC is also the only organisation in South East Europe working in the field of cross-border crime at operational level, bringing together police and customs authorities from the 12 Member States.
SELEC member states are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, the Republic of Moldova, Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, Hungary, Turkey and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
The operational activities of the SELEC Centre are carried out in 8 Task Forces (Task Forces) specialising in human trafficking and illegal migration, drug trafficking, customs fraud and smuggling, cyber and economic crime, terrorism, stolen cars, container security and environmental crime.
The work of the SELEC Liaison Officer is to ensure the rapid exchange of information through the secure communication channel of the SELEC Centre.
He is appointed by Order of the Interior Ministry, pursuant to the Law no. 288/2016 “On the civil servant with special status within the Ministry of Interior Affairs”, the Law no. 761/2001 “On the diplomatic service” and in accordance with the provisions of the Government Decision no. 959/2018 “On the approval of the Nomenclature of functions and hierarchical coefficients for the determination of function allowances for the staff of the diplomatic service institutions of the Republic of Moldova abroad, the calculation basis for the determination of function allowances, as well as their staff structures and staffing levels”.
The basic duties of the officer consist of:
– Participating in the effective conduct of data and information exchange between the MIA, its subdivisions, law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Moldova, as appropriate, and SELEC, immediate and timely communication of information on the current situation, proposals, opportunities within the competence of the MIA.
– Acting as the focal point for communication and exchange of information between MAI and SELEC through secure communication channels created for this purpose. To make operational use of the data on cross-border crime provided by the Romanian law enforcement agencies and SELEC.
– Promote the priorities of MAI and RM in the area of competence based on the tasks and mandate entrusted.
– Facilitate fluent communication with the relevant authorities in the state of accreditation (Romania) to solve problems of common interest, including those related to the fight against transnational crime.
– Exchange of operational information with police and law enforcement agencies in other countries for the purpose of preventing, combating and investigating cross-border crime, smuggling, customs fraud and other serious crime.
– Receiving, processing, analysing and securing and ensuring the use of operational information received from law enforcement agencies in the Republic of Moldova and other countries.
It is an organisation for coordinating and combating organised and other dangerous crime on the territory of the CIS member states.
The Plenipotentiary Representative of the Republic of Moldova in the Office for the Coordination of the Fight against Organized Crime and Other Dangerous Crimes on the Territory of the CIS Member States is an official person, appointed on the proposal of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, coordinated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and dismissed from office by a decision of the Government and who in his activity is guided by the provisions of the Regulation on the Office for the Coordination of the Fight against Organized Crime and Other Dangerous Crimes on the Territory of the CIS Member States.
The activity of the liaison officer at the BCCCO is to achieve the strategic objectives of the Ministry of Interior in the area of competence by ensuring strategic and operational cooperation in accordance with the provisions of the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of Internal Affairs of the CIS member states of 17.05.1996 and the Regulation of the Office for the Coordination of the Fight against Organized Crime and Other Dangerous Crimes on the Territory of the CIS member states of 25.11.2005.
Appointed by Government Decision No 860/2020 “on the appointment of Mr Evghenii BALÎCA as Plenipotentiary Representative of the Republic of Moldova to the Office for the Coordination of the Fight against Organised Crime and Other Dangerous Crimes in the Territory of the CIS Member States”.
The basic tasks of the officer consist of:
– Representing the focal point for communication and exchange of information between the Ministry of Interior and the BCCCO of the CIS through secure communication channels created for this purpose. Operational use of data on cross-border crime provided by law enforcement agencies of CIS member states.
– Promotes the priorities of the MIA and the Republic of Moldova in the area of competence on the basis of the tasks and mandate entrusted to it.
– Facilitate fluent communication with relevant authorities in the state of accreditation to address issues of common interest, including those related to the fight against transnational crime.
– Make proposals for the development of national home affairs programmes and identify potential areas where the diplomatic mission, organisation, international institution could provide assistance.
– Make proposals for the development of national home affairs programmes and identify potential areas where the BCCCO could provide assistance.
– Participate in the effective exchange of data and information between the MFA, its subdivisions, Moldovan law enforcement agencies, as appropriate, and Europol, communicating immediately and without delay information on the current situation, proposals, opportunities within the competence of the MFA.
General information on the fight against crime in the Commonwealth of Independent States
The fight against organised crime is a priority for CIS member states, which have unanimously expressed their willingness to join forces.
The priority of this area of cooperation in the framework of CIS activities is confirmed by the Concept for the Further Development of the Commonwealth of Independent States, approved by a decision of the Council of Heads of State on 5 October 2007.
A programme has been set up to further improve cooperation between CIS Member States through the relevant CIS bodies in combating cross-border crime, such as:
- Further development of the international regulatory framework for cooperation between CIS Member States;
- Harmonisation and improvement of the national legislation of the CIS Member States;
- Conduct joint or coordinated interdepartmental prophylactic activities, operational investigative operations and special operations;
- Ensuring informational and scientific cooperation;
- Implementation of cooperation in the field of human resources training and training of specialists;
- Development of cooperation with international organisations.
Also one of the main elements of the established institutional and legal system is the treaty framework, which includes concept papers for each specific area of cooperation: combating organised crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, illegal migration and other illegal acts.
In the rather voluminous CIS legal framework, almost one third of the documents regulate cooperation and interaction in the fight against crime. The Inter-Parliamentary Assembly of CIS member states also plays a key role in the development of this framework, where more than a quarter of the total number of model legislative acts and recommendations adopted relate to security and combating new challenges and threats.
In recent years, the CIS supreme bodies have adopted around 30 documents aimed to deepening and broadening cooperation in combating crimes.
- Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Moldova on operational activities carried out by the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) in the Republic of Moldova, signed on July 8, 2022.
The purpose of the Agreement is to create a legal framework for joint actions carried out on the territory of the Republic of Moldova by the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (FRONTEX) and the General Inspectorate of Border Police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova.
- Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of the Republic of Lithuania on cooperation in the fight against crime, signed on August 3 2022.
The purpose of the Agreement is to strengthen cooperation between the competent authorities of the Parties through mutual assistance in combating offences covered by the national legislation of the Parties.
- Treaties under signature
- Agreement between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan on the fight against crime, from 26 January 2022.
The purpose of the Agreement is cooperation in the field of prevention, investigation, suppression and resolution of crimes against life and health, freedom and dignity of the person; illegal traffic in narcotics and psychotropic substances and their precursors; and other crimes.
- Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of the Republic of Belarus on the recognition and conversion of driving licences, from 2 Februarie 2022.
The purpose of the Agreement is the recognition and conversion of driving licences and their equivalent. Also, with the conversion of driving licences in both countries, the non-resident drivers’ anonymity will be ended and traffic violations committed in a country other than the one in which the vehicle concerned was registered will be penalised.
- Agreement between the Republic of Moldova and the Republic of Albania on police cooperation of 25.02.2022.
The purpose of the Agreement is to enhance cooperation by providing mutual assistance in combating offences covered by the national legislation of the Parties. This Agreement will not include the arrangements for providing legal assistance in criminal matters and extradition.
- Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of Romania on the establishment of the state border crossing point Leova – Bumbata, signed in Bucharest on August 22, 2022.
The purpose of the Agreement is to create favourable conditions for the flow of people and goods and the management of the flow of goods and other goods on the Moldovan-Romanian border segment by developing the network of routes for cross-border traffic of means of transport.
- Convention between the Government of the Republic of Moldova and the Government of the Kingdom of Belgium on police cooperation.
The purpose of signing the Convention is to enhance cooperation between the competent authorities of the Parties by providing each other with the maximum possible support in the field of police cooperation.
- Protocol amending of the Agreement between the Parties to the Police Cooperation Convention for South East Europe on the automated exchange of DNA data, dactyloscopic data and vehicle registration data, from September 29, 2022.
The purpose of the ratification is to ensure that the new framework established for the automated exchange of DNA data, dactyloscopic and vehicle registration data between the Parties is based on EU standards.
- International documents, which do not cover the Law No 595-XIV of 24.09.1999 on international treaties of the Republic of Moldova (signed).
- Cooperation agreement between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Soros Foundation Moldova on modernization and efficiency of the internal affairs system, signed on March 25, 2022 in Chisinau.
- Joint Declaration of intention between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the Federal Ministry of Digital Development and Transport of the Federal Republic of Germany on the procedural aspects of the transcription of driving licences, signed on 5 April 2022 in Berlin.
- Cooperation Agreement between the Republic of Moldova and the European Union Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine (EUBAM), signed on 2 June 2022 in Chisinau.
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Danish Refugee Council (DR) on strengthening capacities of the Migration and Asylum Office’s Refugee Accommodation Centre, signed on June 3, in Chisinau.
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the NORCAP department of the Norwegian Refugee Council, signed on June 16, 2022 in Chisinau.
Letter of Intention between the Ministry of Interior of the French Republic and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova on strengthening bilateral cooperation in the field of internal security, signed on 11.07.2022 in Prague.
- Interinstitutional cooperation agreement between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the State University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Nicolae Testemitanu”, signed on July 27, 2022.
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Lithuania on cooperation in the field of home affairs, signed on August 3, 2022 in Chisinau.
- Memorandum of Understanding between Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and UNHCR – regarding the cooperation for effective management of the refugee crisis and support to the host countries affected by the conflict in Ukraine, signed on 4 August 2022, in Chisinau.
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees in the Republic of Moldova on cooperation for effective management of the refugee crisis and support to host countries affected by the conflict in Ukraine, signed on August 4, 2022 in Chisinau.
- Memorandum of cooperation and mutual exchange of information between the FBI and MIA on the identification of fingerprints for criminal justice and counter-terrorism purposes, signed on August 5th in Chisinau.
- Cooperation agreement between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the Romanian Special Telecommunications Service on the development of secure radio communication networks – TETRA, signed on September 2, 2022, in Chisinau.
- Memorandum of cooperation between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the International Organization for Migration on the development and renovation of the Family Justice Centre, signed on September 6, 2022 in Chisinau.
- Administrative Arrangement between the Ministry of Interior of the Republic of Moldova and the Federal Ministry of Interior, Building and Community Affairs and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany on the application of simplified procedures for the readmission of Moldovan citizens (an extension procedure has been ensured until September 26, 2022 ).
- International documents not covered by the Law No 595-XIV of 24.09.1999 on international treaties of the Republic of Moldova ready for signature
- Memorandum of Understanding between the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Moldova and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Latvia on cooperation in the field of internal affairs from September 14, 2022.
European Union (EU)
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states located mainly in Europe. The Republic of Moldova’s relations with the European Union were formally established by the signing of the Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) on November 28, 1994, which entered into force on July 1, 1998 for an initial period of 10 years with the possibility of silent extension. The document established the legal framework for bilateral relations between the Republic of Moldova and the EU in the political, commercial, economic, legal, cultural and scientific fields and had as its objectives to support the Republic of Moldova in: strengthening democracy and the rule of law with respect for human and minority rights by ensuring the appropriate framework for political dialogue; sustainable development of the economy and completion of the transition to a market economy by promoting trade, investment and harmonious economic relations.
The next step in Moldova-EU rapprochement was the Moldova-EU Action Plan, drawn up under the European Neighbourhood Policy and adopted at the Moldova-EU Cooperation Council in Februarie 2005. The Action Plan set out strategic cooperation objectives for a three-year period which was subsequently extended repeatedly.
In the context of the EU-Moldova Action Plan, political dialogue between Moldova and the EU was ensured through meetings in the format of the EU-Moldova Political Dialogue (COEST, COPS, Political Directors) where the course of reforms in Moldova, EU-Moldova relations and issues of common interest in the field of foreign and security policy were discussed.
The Moldova-EU Action Plan was replaced in 2014 by the Association Agenda, agreed under the Moldova-EU Association Agreement. In August 2017, a new Association Agenda was approved for the period 2017-2019, containing short-term priorities and the environment for Moldova-EU cooperation.
On 4 March 2022, the Republic of Moldova formally applied for EU membership. The Council of the European Union invited the European Commission to present its opinion on the Republic of Moldova’s application as a first step for the European Union in the accession process.
In order to be able to draft such an opinion, on 11 and 19 April 2022, the European Commission sent two parts of the questionnaire on the Republic of Moldova’s application for membership of the European Union to the authorities in Chisinau.
The answers to the questions in this questionnaire represented the current state of affairs in our country, showing the level of preparedness for accession to the European Union. The first part of the completed questionnaire was sent to the European Commission on April 22, 2022, and the second part – on May 12, 2022.
On June 17, 2022, the European Commission issued its opinion on the application for membership, recommending to the EU Council to grant our country the status of candidate country if measures are taken in several areas.
On June 23, 2022, the European Council recognised the European perspective of the Republic of Moldova and decided to grant it the status of candidate country for accession to the European Union.
In this context, the European Commission was invited to report to the European Council on the fulfilment of the conditions set out in its opinion of June 17, 2022, as part of its regular enlargement package. The European Council will decide on the next steps once all conditions are fully met.
In order to coordinate the efforts of the national authorities, an Action Plan for the implementation of the 9 conditions formulated by the European Commission has been drawn up. The draft plan was discussed at the meeting of the National Commission for European Integration (NCEI) on 13 July 2022 and was adopted on August 4, 2022.
The Action Plan contains the next steps to be achieved by the summer of 2023.
The action plan approved at the CNIE was consulted by the MFAEI, together with the team from the State Chancellery and national institutions, with representatives of civil society and with the European Commission.
The document contains actions, terms and responsible institutions for each of the 9 areas:
- justice reform;
- electoral framework;
- fight against corruption;
- deoligarchisation and reducing the influence of private interests;
- fight against organised crime and money laundering;
- improving public services, public administration reform;
- public finance management;
- involvement of civil society;
- human rights.
1) participates, jointly with the specialized structures of the Ministry of Internal
Affairs, in the preparation of documentation for governmental, parliamentary and
EU committees/subcommittees on the degree of implementation of sectoral
plans in the field of implementation of the Association Agreement, the
Association Agenda and other commitments in relation to the EU;
2) is the single point of contact on behalf of the Ministry of Internal Affairs for
communication with the MFAEI and EU institutions in the field of European
3) participates in the activities within the platforms and initiatives of EU
committees and subcommittees;
4) endorses and ensures the control of actions and activities undertaken by the
MIA structures in the field of international relations and European integration, as
well as ensures the evaluation of the impact of their implementation;
5) regularly informs the MIA management and the administrative authorities and
institutions subordinated to the MIA about the course of development of the
European integration vector and the field of international cooperation, as well as
other foreign policy priorities in the field of internal affairs.